This is one of the most dramatic and unique major mint errors on a U.S. pattern that I have ever handled. It is listed as Judd-151 and is an 1853 Pattern Cent. Its earliest recorded appearance was in Bluestone's 6/1940 sale.
This piece reappeared in ANR's March 2005 sale and later in Heritage's January 2006 FUN and 2006 ANA sales. This is probably one of the most spectacular pattern mint errors known today.